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All the tools come from the Busidama Formation, which lies above a disconformity , or missing layer, which would have been from 2. The oldest sites discovered to contain tools are dated to 2.
Excavators at the locality point out that: . The possible reasons behind this seeming abrupt transition from the absence of stone tools to the presence thereof include The species who made the Pliocene tools remains unknown.
Fragments of Australopithecus garhi , Australopithecus aethiopicus ,  and Homo , possibly Homo habilis , have been found in sites near the age of the Gona tools.
In July , scientists reported the discovery in China of the known oldest stone tools outside Africa, estimated at 2. Innovation of the technique of smelting ore is regarded as ending the Stone Age and beginning the Bronze Age.
The first highly significant metal manufactured was bronze , an alloy of copper and tin or arsenic , each of which was smelted separately. The transition from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age was a period during which modern people could smelt copper, but did not yet manufacture bronze, a time known as the Copper Age or more technically the Chalcolithic or Eneolithic, both meaning 'copper—stone'.
The Chalcolithic by convention is the initial period of the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age. Ötzi the Iceman , a mummy from about BCE, carried with him a copper axe and a flint knife.
The peoples of the Americas notably did not develop a widespread behavior of smelting bronze or iron after the Stone Age period, although the technology existed.
In Europe and North America, millstones were in use until well into the 20th century, and still are in many parts of the world.
The terms "Stone Age", "Bronze Age", and "Iron Age" are not intended to suggest that advancements and time periods in prehistory are only measured by the type of tool material, rather than, for example, social organization , food sources exploited, adaptation to climate, adoption of agriculture, cooking, settlement , and religion.
Like pottery , the typology of the stone tools combined with the relative sequence of the types in various regions provide a chronological framework for the evolution of humanity and society.
They serve as diagnostics of date, rather than characterizing the people or the society. Lithic analysis is a major and specialised form of archaeological investigation.
It involves measurement of stone tools to determine their typology, function and technologies involved. It includes scientific study of the lithic reduction of the raw materials and methods used to make the prehistoric artifacts that are discovered.
Much of this study takes place in the laboratory in the presence of various specialists. In experimental archaeology , researchers attempt to create replica tools, to understand how they were made.
Flintknappers are craftsmen who use sharp tools to reduce flintstone to flint tool. In addition to lithic analysis, field prehistorians utilize a wide range of techniques derived from multiple fields.
The work of archaeologists in determining the paleocontext and relative sequence of the layers is supplemented by the efforts of geologic specialists in identifying layers of rock developed or deposited over geologic time; of paleontological specialists in identifying bones and animals; of palynologists in discovering and identifying pollen, spores and plant species; of physicists and chemists in laboratories determining ages of materials by carbon , potassium-argon and other methods.
Study of the Stone Age has never been limited to stone tools and archaeology, even though they are important forms of evidence. The chief focus of study has always been on the society and the living people who belonged to it.
Useful as it has been, the concept of the Stone Age has its limitations. The date range of this period is ambiguous, disputed, and variable, depending upon the region in question.
While it is possible to speak of a general 'stone age' period for the whole of humanity, some groups never developed metal- smelting technology, and so remained in the so-called 'stone age' until they encountered technologically developed cultures.
The term was innovated to describe the archaeological cultures of Europe. It may not always be the best in relation to regions such as some parts of the Indies and Oceania, where farmers or hunter-gatherers used stone for tools until European colonisation began.
Archaeologists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries CE, who adapted the three-age system to their ideas, hoped to combine cultural anthropology and archaeology in such a way that a specific contemporaneous tribe can be used to illustrate the way of life and beliefs of the people exercising a particular Stone-Age technology.
As a description of people living today, the term stone age is controversial. The Association of Social Anthropologists discourages this use, asserting: .
To describe any living group as 'primitive' or 'Stone Age' inevitably implies that they are living representatives of some earlier stage of human development that the majority of humankind has left behind.
In the s, South African archaeologists organizing the stone tool collections of that country observed that they did not fit the newly detailed Three-Age System.
In the words of J. Desmond Clark , . It was early realized that the threefold division of culture into Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages adopted in the nineteenth century for Europe had no validity in Africa outside the Nile valley.
Consequently, they proposed a new system for Africa, the Three-stage System. There are in effect two Stone Ages, one part of the Three-age and the other constituting the Three-stage.
They refer to one and the same artifacts and the same technologies, but vary by locality and time. The three-stage system was proposed in by Astley John Hilary Goodwin, a professional archaeologist, and Clarence van Riet Lowe , a civil engineer and amateur archaeologist, in an article titled "Stone Age Cultures of South Africa" in the journal Annals of the South African Museum.
He therefore proposed a relative chronology of periods with floating dates, to be called the Earlier and Later Stone Age.
The Middle Stone Age would not change its name, but it would not mean Mesolithic. The duo thus reinvented the Stone Age.
In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, iron-working technologies were either invented independently or came across the Sahara from the north see iron metallurgy in Africa.
The Neolithic was characterized primarily by herding societies rather than large agricultural societies, and although there was copper metallurgy in Africa as well as bronze smelting, archaeologists do not currently recognize a separate Copper Age or Bronze Age.
Moreover, the technologies included in those 'stages', as Goodwin called them, were not exactly the same. Since then, the original relative terms have become identified with the technologies of the Paleolithic and Mesolithic, so that they are no longer relative.
Moreover, there has been a tendency to drop the comparative degree in favor of the positive: resulting in two sets of Early, Middle and Late Stone Ages of quite different content and chronologies.
By voluntary agreement, [ citation needed ] archaeologists respect the decisions of the Pan-African Congress on Prehistory , which meets every four years to resolve archaeological business brought before it.
Delegates are actually international; the organization takes its name from the topic. It adopted Goodwin and Lowe's 3-stage system at that time, the stages to be called Early, Middle and Later.
The problem of the transitions in archaeology is a branch of the general philosophic continuity problem, which examines how discrete objects of any sort that are contiguous in any way can be presumed to have a relationship of any sort.
In archaeology, the relationship is one of causality. The problem is in the nature of this boundary. If there is no distinct boundary, then the population of A suddenly stopped using the customs characteristic of A and suddenly started using those of B, an unlikely scenario in the process of evolution.
If transitions do not exist, then there is no proof of any continuity between A and B. The Stone Age of Europe is characteristically in deficit of known transitions.
The 19th and early 20th-century innovators of the modern three-age system recognized the problem of the initial transition, the "gap" between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Louis Leakey provided something of an answer by proving that man evolved in Africa. The Stone Age must have begun there to be carried repeatedly to Europe by migrant populations.
The different phases of the Stone Age thus could appear there without transitions. The burden on African archaeologists became all the greater, because now they must find the missing transitions in Africa.
The problem is difficult and ongoing. The chronologic basis for definition was entirely relative. With the arrival of scientific means of finding an absolute chronology, the two intermediates turned out to be will-of-the-wisps.
They were in fact Middle and Lower Paleolithic. Fauresmith is now considered to be a facies of Acheulean , while Sangoan is a facies of Lupemban.
Once seriously questioned, the intermediates did not wait for the next Pan African Congress two years hence, but were officially rejected in again on an advisory basis by Burg Wartenstein Conference 29, Systematic Investigation of the African Later Tertiary and Quaternary ,  a conference in anthropology held by the Wenner-Gren Foundation, at Burg Wartenstein Castle, which it then owned in Austria, attended by the same scholars that attended the Pan African Congress, including Louis Leakey and Mary Leakey , who was delivering a pilot presentation of her typological analysis of Early Stone Age tools, to be included in her contribution to Olduvai Gorge , "Excavations in Beds I and II, — In Jens Jacob Worsaae first proposed a division of the Stone Age into older and younger parts based on his work with Danish kitchen middens that began in The major subdivisions of the Three-age Stone Age cross two epoch boundaries on the geologic time scale :.
The succession of these phases varies enormously from one region and culture to another. At sites dating from the Lower Paleolithic Period about 2,, to , years ago , simple pebble tools have been found in association with the remains of what may have been the earliest human ancestors.
A somewhat more sophisticated Lower Paleolithic tradition, known as the Chopper chopping-tool industry, is widely distributed in the Eastern Hemisphere.
This tradition is thought to have been the work of the hominin species named Homo erectus. Although no such fossil tools have yet been found, it is believed that H.
About , years ago, a new Lower Paleolithic tool, the hand ax, appeared. The earliest European hand axes are assigned to the Abbevillian industry , which developed in northern France in the valley of the Somme River ; a later, more refined hand-axe tradition is seen in the Acheulian industry , evidence of which has been found in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.
Some of the earliest known hand axes were found at Olduvai Gorge Tanzania in association with remains of H. Alongside the hand-axe tradition there developed a distinct and very different stone-tool industry, based on flakes of stone: special tools were made from worked carefully shaped flakes of flint.
In Europe, the Clactonian industry is one example of a flake tradition. The early flake industries probably contributed to the development of the Middle Paleolithic flake tools of the Mousterian industry , which is associated with the remains of Neanderthal man.
The earliest documented stone tools have been found in eastern Africa, manufacturers unknown, at the 3. The tools were formed by knocking pieces off a river pebble, or stones like it, with a hammerstone to obtain large and small pieces with one or more sharp edges.
The original stone is called a core; the resultant pieces, flakes. Typically, but not necessarily, small pieces are detached from a larger piece, in which case the larger piece may be called the core and the smaller pieces the flakes.
The prevalent usage, however, is to call all the results flakes, which can be confusing. A split in half is called bipolar flaking. Consequently, the method is often called "core-and-flake".
More recently, the tradition has been called "small flake" since the flakes were small compared to subsequent Acheulean tools. Pebble cores are Various refinements in the shape have been called choppers, discoids, polyhedrons, subspheroid, etc.
To date no reasons for the variants have been ascertained: . However, they would not have been manufactured for no purpose: .
Pebble cores can be useful in many cutting, scraping or chopping tasks, but The whole point of their utility is that each is a "sharp-edged rock" in locations where nature has not provided any.
There is additional evidence that Oldowan, or Mode 1, tools were utilized in "percussion technology"; that is, they were designed to be gripped at the blunt end and strike something with the edge, from which use they were given the name of choppers.
Modern science has been able to detect mammalian blood cells on Mode 1 tools at Sterkfontein , Member 5 East, in South Africa. As the blood must have come from a fresh kill, the tool users are likely to have done the killing and used the tools for butchering.
Plant residues bonded to the silicon of some tools confirm the use to chop plants. Although the exact species authoring the tools remains unknown, Mode 1 tools in Africa were manufactured and used predominantly by Homo habilis.
They cannot be said to have developed these tools or to have contributed the tradition to technology. They continued a tradition of yet unknown origin.
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